Identifying pests found in your collection is an important step in understanding how to treat the problem and prevent future occurrences.
Identification of pests found within your institution is the first crucial step in solving the problems that these invaders can cause. Proper identification will give you important information about what foods they eat, what environmental and harborage conditions they prefer, how long they live and other key biological clues.
By starting with the biology of your potential pests, you are better equipped to map out an IPM plan to eliminate or reduce them without the use of harmful chemicals. In certain situations, a slight change in humidity or temperature can cause the pests to leave or die. Knowing what food the identified pest eats will help identify which collection items are most at risk. Knowing how and where they reproduce can allow you to remove the breeding areas. All of this information will help your cause in eliminating pests while protecting people and collections.
The Identification Aids portion of museumpests.net includes:
Pest Fact Sheets - These one-page white sheets give images and information in the following catagories:
Image Library- A reference library of pest images for use for identification and in training. Images can be uploaded for sharing with this group.
Identification Resources - A list of additional printed reference sources that may be useful for pest identification
Web Resources - A list of web resources for pest identification
Bibliography - Materials referenced in the pest fact sheets
|View||Common Name||Latin Name|
|American Cockroach||Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)|
|Black Carpet Beetle||Attagenus unicolor|
|Black Larder Beetle||Dermestes ater (De Geer)|
|Book Lice or Psocids||Liposcelis sp.|
|Brown House Moth||Hofmannophila pseudospretella (Staint.)|
|Brown Marmorated Stink Bug||Halyomorpha halys|
|Brownbanded Cockroach||Supella longipalpa (Fabricius)|
|Casemaking Clothes Moth||Tinea pellionella (Linnaeus)|
|Cigarette beetle||Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)|
|Deathwatch Beetle||Xestobium rufovillosum (De Geer)|
|Drugstore Beetle||Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus)|
|Firebrat||Thermobia domestica (Packard)|
|Furniture Beetle||Anobium punctatum (DeGeer)|
|Furniture Carpet Beetle||Anthrenus flavipes (LeConte)|
|German Cockroach||Blattella germanica (Linnaeus)|
|Hide Beetle||Dermestes maculatus (De Geer)|
|House Mouse||Mus domesticus (Rutty)|
|House Sparrow||Passer domesticus|
|Larder Beetle||Dermestes lardarius (Linnaeus)|
|Minute Brown Scavenger Beetle||Family Latridiidae|
|Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle||Harmonia axyridis (Pallas)|
|Norway Rat aka Brown Rat||Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout)|
|Odd Beetle||Thylodrias contractus (Motschulsky)|
|Old House Borer||Hylotrupes bajulus (Linnaeus)|
|Oriental Cockroach||Blatta orientalis (Linnaeus)|
|Roof Rat||Rattus rattus|
|Silverfish||Lepisma saccharina (Linnaeus)|
|True Powderpost Beetle||Lyctus spp.|
|Varied Carpet Beetle||Anthrenus verbasci (Linneaus)|
|Vodka beetle||Attagenus smirnovi (Zhantiev)|
|Warehouse Beetle||Trogoderma variabile (Ballion)|
|Webbing Clothes Moth||Tineola bisselliella (Hummel)|
|Western Conifer Seed Bug||Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidmann)|
|Whiteshouldered House Moth||Endrosis sarcitrella (Linnaeus)|
|Woodlouse Hunter Spider||Dysdera crocata (Koch)|
Thank you for your interest in contributing resources to this site. An online form to upload submissions for use on MuseumPests.net is located in the About Us Page - Submission Form.
The Resources, Web Resources page has additional resources that may pertain to identification
The Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard University maintains an online database for primary types in the entomology collections. The MCZ insect type collection, one of the largest in North America, currently preserves the primary types of more than 28,000 species, representing 29 orders, 565 families, and 7,578 genera. In addition to such information as type label data, type stage and status, current species name (if available), the database includes high resolution images of the type specimens.
This website run by volunteer naturalists bills itself as a site for “Identification, Images, & Information For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin For the United States & Canada.” There are numerous images of insects that can be helpful in identification. A search can be made on the common name (e.g. booklice, cigarette beetle, dermestid). Registered users can post images for help in identification.
National Park Service Integrated Pest Management web page contains links to multiple other sites as well as species specific information on museum pests such as carpet beetles, clothes moths, cluster flies, psocids/booklice, silverfish/firebrats.
This site contains Information on pest species from the University of California, Riverside Department of Entomology with a focus on California insects, rather than museum pests. The site also maintains an online eidition of Ebeling’s out-of-print reference Urban Entomology.
The Pest Control Canada site includes information for both professionals and consumers. There are links to pages with information on common pests in Canada, an on-line forum, and an identification site where people can post images of pests that they hope to identify
Urban Pest Control Research Center website. The company is dedicated to conducting research, training, and control programs on household and structural pests. The professional entomologists at the UPCRC conduct and supervise field research, provide insect identifications, conduct training courses and seminars, and design integrated pest management programs for commercial, government, and residential sites. The website contains information on identification, training and research.
The Australian National Insect Collection (ANIC) is the world''s largest collection of Australian insects and related groups such as mites, spiders, worms and centipedes. Information for identification of species. This group is linked to the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization (CSIRO) Australia''s government entomology research organization. Nice color moth keys, Although some species are only specific to Australia. Information on identification of species. Their Ecowatch website has outreach information and the Coleoptera page has species specific information on beetles.
A wealth of information and identification tools for dermestid species.
Insect Images website is a source for entomology photos. The site, which offers free images with registration, is a joint project of the Bugwood Network, University of Georgia and the USDA Forest Service.
The Bug Network website for The Bugwood Work Group. The mission for the group is to gather, create, maintain, promote the use of, and economically distribute digital information both as resources and as tools to enhance and complement information exchange and educational activities primarily in the fields of entomology, forestry, forest health and natural resources.
Information on species with images from E-PestSupply.com an on-line retailer
The University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension Service. Information on different common pests as well as extensive links to pesticide information.
Information for moth identification is available on this website from the Mississippi State University and Mississippi Entomological Museum.
The Museums of Cape Town website with excellent pictures of beetles
The Iowa State Department of Entomology has a very helpful index, "Entomology Index
of Internet Resources". It is organized by content type (images, databases, etc.), taxonomic group and entomology subdivision. Their diagnostic Laboratory contains images and information on specific species
Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History California Beetle Project’s website has information on “taxonomic checklists, a comprehensive, searchable distributional database, descriptions of ongoing fieldwork, a gallery of images of California beetles, ecological information for many species, and detailed information on several beetles considered endangered or threatened in California.”
Entomology Department, Texas A&M University. General information as well as an identification key for wood-boring beetles.
University of Minnesota Extension Service page with information on Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles
Penn State Department of Entomology with information on extension, education and more. A search of the site links to other documents.
The Young Entomologists Society (Y.E.S.) website has a section “Minibeasts” with identification keys for Arthropods, information on beetles, an ‘Encyclopedia Bugtannica” and more.
Information from Do-It-Yourself Pest Control on the Powder Post beetle.
Degesch America, a fumigant manufacturing company has a Pest Gallery with information on species. Information on the following categories is available: appearance, life history, distribution, damage, and control. The links on the Appearance and Damage attributes will open a small window showing the bug or damage, respectively.
The Math/Science Nucleus’s joint project with the City of Fremont, Alameda Public Works, and Fremont Unified School District to provide information on the biology, geology, and chemistry of southern Alameda County. The site has pdf documents with with line-drawings of ladybugs, beetles, and other insects
Nature Photographer’s personal website with some high quality images of individual insects.
Image of the Patent-leather Beetle (Odontotaenius disjunctus) http://www.fcps.k12.va.us/StratfordLandingES/Ecology/mpages/patent-leather_beetle.htm
Online museum pest identification poster http://www.museums.state.ak.us/documents/insect_id_poster.pdf
Bell, WJ. "Cockroaches in the Museum Environment." A Guide to Museum Pest Control. eds L. A. Zycherman, and JR SchrockWashington DC: Foundation of the American Institute for the Conservation of Historic and Artisic Works// The Association of Systematic Collections, 1988.
Blyth, Valerie. "The Indian Vase Carpet Fragment, Decisions and Discussions Prior to Conservation." Victoria and Albert Conservation Journal 31 (1999).
———. "Pest Management at the Victoria and Albert Museum." in Post Prints, UKIC Furniture Section, Pest Control in Organic Materials1996.
Blyth, Valerie, and Lynda Hillyer. "Carpet Beetle: A Pilot Study in Detection and Control." The Conservator 16 (1992).
Brian J. Cabrera. "Featured Creatures, Cigarette Beetle." Web page, [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://entomology.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/urban/stored/cigarette_beetle.htm.
Busvine, JR. Insects and Hygene. The Biology and Control of Insect Pests of Medical and Domestic Importance. 3rd ed. London: Chapman and Hall, 1980.
Cornell University Insect Diagnostic Laboratory. "Cigarette and Drugstore Beetles." Web page, December 2008 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.entomology.cornell.edu/public/IthacaCampus/ExtOutreach/DiagnosticLab/Factsheets/CigDrugstoreBeetles.html.
Do It Yourself Pest Control. "Cigarette Beetle and Drugstore Beetles." Web page, [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.pantrypest.com/cigarette.htm.
Ebeling, Walter. Urban Entomology. Riverside: University of California Press, 1978.
European Commission on Preservation and Access . "Virtual Exhibition of the Ravages of Dust, Water, Moulds, Fungi, Bookworms and Other Pests." Web page, Available at http://www.knaw.nl/ecpa/expo.htm.
Florian, Mary-Lou. Heritage Eaters: Insects and Fungi in Heritage CollectionsJames & James Publishers, 1997.
Gorham, J. R. Insect and Mite Pests in Food, An Illustrated Key, Vol. Volumes 1 & 2. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, 1987.
Hedges, Stoy. Field Guide for the Management of Structure Infesting Flies. Cleveland: G.I.E. Inc., 1998.
Hedges, Stoy, and Mark Lacey. Field Guide for the Management of Structure Infesting Beetles, Vol. 2. Cleveland: Franzak and Foster Co..
Hillyer, L, and V Blyth. "Carpet Beetles A Pilot Study in Detection and Control." The Conservator 16 (1992): 65-77.
Iowa State university, Department of Entomology. "Iowa Insect Information Notes, Cigarette Beetle and Drugstore Beetle." Web page, July 2005 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.ipm.iastate.edu/ipm/iiin/bciarett.html.
Kesse, Erich. Identification of Infested Paper, Book and Textile Formats.
———. Know the Signs of Insect Infestation.
Kigawa, R., H. Nochide, Y. Miyazawa, S. Miura, and Thomas J. K. Strang. "Carbon Dioxide Adsorption by Various Kinds of Materials in the Eradication of Museum Pest Insects. " Science for Conservation 42, no. 79-86.
Kingsley, Helen, David Pinninger, Amber Xavier-Rowe, and Peter Winsor. Integrated Pest Management for Collections, Proceedings of 2001: A Pest OdysseyEnglish Heritage.
Linnie, Martyn J. "Intergrated Pest Management: A Proposed Strategy for Natural History Museums." Museum Management and Curatorship 15 , no. 2 (1996): 133-43.
Mallis, Arnold. Handbook of Pest Control : the Behavior, Life History, and Control of Household Pests by Arnold Mallis. 9 ed. Cleveland, OH: GIE Media Inc., 2004.
Notes: Includes bibliographical references and indexes. Submitted by Laura Smyk
Motylewsky, Karen. "Pest, Insect & Fungus Management - Conference Notes." .
Pinniger, David. Insect Pests in Museums Institue of Archaeology Publications, 1989.
Pinniger, David, Adrian Meyer, and Annette Townsend. Pest Management in Museums, Archives and Historic Houses. London: Archetype Publications Ltd., 2001.
Professional Pest Control Products. "Cigarette Beetle." Web page, [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.pestproducts.com/cigarett.htm.
Resh, Vincent H., and Ring T. Cardé, eds. Encyclopedia of Insects. New York: Academic Press, 2003.
Smith, Eric H., and Richard C. Whitman. Npca Field Guide to Structural PestsNational Pest Control Association Inc., 1997.
Steve Jacobs, Sr. Extension Associate. "Entomological Notes, Cigarette Beetle." Web page, March 1998 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.ento.psu.edu/extension/factsheets/cigarette_beetle.htm.
Strang, Thomas J. K. "Moth Eaten." in Fur Trade Legacy, the Preservation of Organic Materials. Preprints From the Workshop at the 31st Annual ConferenceCanadian Association for Conservation of Cultural Property.
———. "Psocids or "Book Lice": A Warning of Dampness." CCI Note 3/4, Canadian Conservation Institute, 1998.
Stuart M Bennett. "Cigarette or Tobacco Beetle." Web page, 2003 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.the-piedpiper.co.uk/th7m.htm.
U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Pictorial Keys to Arthropods, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals of Public Health Significance. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health Education, and Welfare. 1967.
Virginia Cooperative Extension. "Cigarette Beetle." Web page, 1996 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.ext.vt.edu/departments/entomology/factsheets/cigarett.html.
Virginia Cooperative Extension. "Drugstore Beetle." Web page, 1996 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://www.ext.vt.edu/departments/entomology/factsheets/drugstor.html.
Wikipedia. "Cigarette Beetle (Lasioderma serricorne)." Web page, December 2008 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lasioderma_serricorne.
Wikipedia. "Drugstore Beetle (Stegobium paniceum)." Web page, January 2009 [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drugstore_beetle.
William F. Lyon . "Cigarette and Drugstore Beetles." Web page, [accessed 19 February 2009]. Available at http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/2000/2083.html.